Which of the following constitutes both a breach of a confidentiality (the research data have been disclosed, counter to the agreement between researcher and subjects) and a violation of subjects’ privacy (the right of the individuals to be protected against intrusion into their personal lives or affairs)?
- A researcher asks cocaine users to provide names and contact information of other cocaine users who might qualify for a study.
- A faculty member makes identifiable data about sexual behavior available to graduate students, although the subjects were assured that the data would be de-identified.
- A researcher, who is a guest, audio-records conversations at a series of private dinner parties to assess gender roles, without informing participants.
- In order to eliminate the effect of observation on behavior, a researcher attends a support group and records interactions without informing the attendees.
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